"Mirror for Americans: Japan" by Helen Mears, 1948: one of the " best angel of American culture " !

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    Do you know this book ?
      

       This book was written in 1948 by Ms.Helen Mears, but Japanese translation was actualized in 1995. after 50 years later!
         Why ?
         Ms. Helen Mears wrote about Japan 's situation and USA's policy & profpund problems honestry and  fairly , so General D.M. prohibited to translate it into Japanese.
          Because of that, she was not appreciate in USA and did not work as a scholar .

                                    ***
          I  would like to appreciate and admire her fair-mindness and courage.   
          She showed us  a real " best angel of American culture" !  



                                           ***      
         



    miwakokurosen * The Constituion of Japan * 13:39 * comments(0) * trackbacks(0) * - -

    Dr. William Lanouette,"The Past is Less Certain Than the Future" Who Defines World Culture ? How and What for ? - Our Example: the Horishima Bomb - at The Bauhaus, 3-5 June 1999.

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        by Lis Wackman



        
        
        This talk was presented at “Bauhaus and Brasilia, Auschwitz and Hiroshima. World Heritage of the 20th Century: Modernity and Barbarism” at The Bauhaus, 3-5 June 1999.

       

      "The Past is Less Certain Than the Future"

          
      Who Defines World Culture ?   How and What for ? -  Our Example: the Horishima Bomb -

          By William Lanouette, Ph. D. Washington DC

         Hiroshima raises many profound questions about how the Twentieth Century will be remembered: Who defines world culture? How do we treat our cultural heritage?  Who remembers what, and for which purpose?

        As U.S. President Harry S Truman toured war-torn Berlin on 16th July 1945, he looked at the rubble left by Allied bombing and remarked, “...I fear that the machines are ahead of morals by some centuries.”  And in the Berlin suburb of Potsdam that evening, Truman received word from home that the world’s first atomic bomb had just been tested. Three weeks later, an A-bomb destroyed Hiroshima.


       My historian friends in Hungary like to say that “The past is less certain than the future.” They have in mind their nation’s constantly revisionist history, but the remark has special significance for Hiroshima as well, and may help us to answer those three questions.

      Who defines world culture?

       With Hiroshima as our example, I would answer, both the victors and the victims. It may seem that most history is written about victories, but many cultures also thrive by remembering ― even venerating ― their past defeats.
       
       The victors in the Pacific War have found much to celebrate about Hiroshima. And from the very beginning, President Truman made their task easier. In his first public announcement, on  6th August 1945, Truman said that “the largest bomb ever yet used in the history of warfare” had been dropped “on Hiroshima, an important Japanese Army base.” Truman added, “The Japanese began the war from the air at Pearl Harbor. They have been repaid many fold.”[i]  Thus, Truman defined Hiroshima as a military event and justified one act of barbarism with another.

      Only later did Truman and his advisors assert that the bomb was used to spare the American lives that might have been lost had the Allies been forced to invade the Japanese home islands. In time, the bomb’s benefits grew ― to a million casualties spared, then to “millions of lives” saved.[ii]  Truman’s justification was reinforced in a 1947 Harper’s Magazine article about “The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb” by his former Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson.[iii]

       In America, this “orthodox” view of Hiroshima holds that the city’s destruction was necessary to end the war and save lives. Several histories support this interpretation,[iv] which remains popular because it offers both simplicity and morality. This orthodox view suggests a simple cause-and-effect relationship between Hiroshima and Japan’s surrender eight days later. And it suggests that by obliterating Hiroshima, the bomb actually “saved” lives. As Hemingway wrote, “Isn’t it pretty to think so?”

       But since Hiroshima, a “revisionist” view has emerged based on declassified documents from U.S. government archives and private diaries by Truman, Stimson, and their aides.  (Nothing similar has occurred in Japan, partly because the government destroyed many of its archives for fear that the materials might be used for war-crimes trials.[v])

      * In 1947, P.M.S. Blackett, a British Nobel laureate in physics, published  Fear, War, and the Bomb: Military and Political Consequences of Atomic Energy.[vi]  Blackett concluded that America’s use of the bomb had more to do with the early stages of its Cold War against the Soviet Union than with forcing an early Japanese surrender. According to this “atomic diplomacy” interpretation, Truman was urged on by Secretary of State James F. Byrnes to end the Pacific War before the Soviet Union’s promised entry on 8th August. 

      * In 1965, historian Gar Alperovitz published Atomic Diplomacy: Hiroshima & Potsdam. The Use of the Atomic Bomb and the American Confrontation with Soviet Power.[vii]  Alperovitz concluded that the primary reason for bombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki was not to end the war with Japan, but, in Byrnes’s phrase, to make the Soviets “more manageable.” 

      * In 1975, historian Martin J. Sherwin published A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance,[viii] which emphasized the Soviet factor among many that influenced the decision to bomb Hiroshima.

      * And in 1976, historian Barton J. Bernstein edited The Atomic Bomb: The Critical Issues, raising doubts about Truman’s post-war estimates of the many lives saved by the bomb.[ix]

      In 1997, diplomatic historian J. Samuel Walker surveyed scholarship on the Hiroshima decision and refuted as a “widely held myth” the common belief  “that Truman had to choose between, on the one hand, authorizing attacks on Japanese cities with atomic bombs or, on the other hand, ordering an invasion.” Instead, Walker concluded,


      the historical evidence makes clear that the popular view about the use of the bomb is a mythological construct for the following reasons: (1) there were other options available for ending the war within a reasonably short time without the bomb and without an invasion; (2) Truman and his key advisers believed that Japan was so weak that the war could end before an invasion began;  that is, they did not regard an invasion as inevitable; and (3) even in the worst case, if an invasion of Japan proved to be necessary, military planners in the summer of 1945 projected the number of American lives lost at far fewer than the hundreds of thousands that Truman and his advisers claimed after the war.”[x]

       

      So, ironically, the first revisionist views of Hiroshima came not from the usual suspects ― Blackett, Alperovitz, Sherwin, and Bernstein ― but from Truman and Stimson. Indeed, Stimson’s ghost writer for the Harper’s article, McGeorge Bundy, later defended Truman’s announcement that Hiroshima was an “Army base” by insisting, “It’s a military target like New York.”[xi]   Bundy also said that he could not recall any documentary source for Stimson’s claim that an invasion might cost a million casualties.[xii]

      And yet, most Americans are still eager to believe that killing some 200,000 people at Hiroshima was somehow a moral event. A 1995 Gallup Poll of Americans who were alive at the end of World War II reported that an overwhelming majority agreed with the decision to use atomic weapons against Japan, presumably because of the prevailing myth that the only alternative was an invasion.[xiii]  Stressing the lives saved by the bomb prevents the Americans from confronting what their leaders had done.


      But the victims can also have a voice in defining world culture. In fact, for many Japanese the destruction of Hiroshima by an A-bomb provides a strong sense of what Japanese historian Sadao Asada calls “nuclear victimization.”  According to Asada, “the ‘orthodox’ interpretation in Japan has reflected the American ‘revisionist’ view”[xiv] and “while the ‘atomic diplomacy’ thesis heightens the Japanese sense of victimization, it also accords with their general unwillingness to come to grips with their responsibility for the Pacific War and its consequences.”[xv]  Thanks to the bomb, at 8:16 a.m. on 6th August 1945, in a flash, the villains of the Pacific War became its greatest victims.

      Navy Minister Mitsumasa Yonai said just after Japan agreed to surrender that “the use of the atomic bomb and the Soviet entry into the war are gifts from Heaven....” Why? Not to force surrender on a reluctant military, Yonai said, but to avoid a post-war domestic political crisis ― and perhaps even a coup by militant officers.[xvi]  By emphasizing the horrors of Hiroshima, the Japanese may feel less responsibility for the atrocities that their own military committed throughout the Pacific in the 1930s and 1940s. These atrocities included the “Rape of Nanking” in China and continued with the sexual enslavement of “comfort women” in Korea and the Bataan Death March in the Philippines. Stressing the lives lost by the bomb prevents the Japanese from confronting what their leaders had done.

      When the UNESCO World Heritage Committee decided in 1996 to inscribe the Hiroshima Peace Memorial (Genbaku Dome) on the World Heritage List, two countries objected. China complained that “During the Second World War, it was the other Asian countries and peoples who suffered the greatest loss in life and property.”  And, citing especially “the lack of historical perspective,” the United States disassociated itself from the Committee’s decision. “The events antecedent to the United States’ use of atomic weapons to end World War II are key to understanding the tragedy of Hiroshima,” the USA representative stated. “Any examination of the period leading up to 1945 should be placed in the appropriate historical context.”[xvii]

       


      How do we treat our cultural heritage?

      I would answer, to serve our present purposes. An example was the bitter dispute in 1995 over the Smithsonian Institution’s plan to display the Enola Gay, the B-29 that dropped the bomb on Hiroshima. Many members of the U.S.Congress and lobbyists for military and veterans’ groups proclaimed the orthodox view of Hiroshima. They had expected the fiftieth anniversary of World War II’s end to be a celebration. Not a commemoration. And certainly not a controversy or a condemnation.

      Thus, in 1995 the politicians and military professionals attacked the Smithsonian’s exhibition script for including revisionist evidence about the many reasons the bomb was used ― military, diplomatic, and political.  As one official for the American Legion, a powerful veterans’ group, said, “The debate started fifty years ago and it has never been resolved.”[xviii]  Eventually the Congressmen won, using simplistic appeals to public sentiment and their control over the Smithsonian budget. In the end, the exhibition curators removed displays about the history of strategic bombing, about the top-secret Manhattan Project that designed and built the bomb, and about a petition to President Truman by Project scientists that raised moral questions about bombing civilians.  Gone, too, were gruesome photos and artifacts from Hiroshima. Instead, the exhibition featured parts of the bomber’s gleaming fuselage and a film of the flight crew bragging about how efficiently their mission had ended the war and saved lives.[xix]

      Who remembers what, and for which purpose?


      I would answer, we all look to history for examples that support our current world view. For example, today’s arms-control activists look with admiration on the lives of two Manhattan Project scientists who worked to build the bomb before Germany could, but who then devoted the rest of their lives to halting nuclear weapons proliferation: Joseph Rotblat and Leo Szilard.

      The Polish-born physicist Joseph Rotblat worked at Los Alamos in New Mexico, the secret laboratory where the A-bomb was designed and built. But in 1944, Rotblat learned that Germany had made little progress with its A-bomb program.  He also heard that General Leslie R. Groves, the Manhattan Project’s military director,  planned to use the bomb against Japan ― and maybe the Soviet Union. Rotblat had been working on the bomb in order to build a defensive weapon against Germany, not an offensive one. He quit the Project and in England pursued research in nuclear medicine.  In 1955 Rotblat helped philosopher Bertrand Russell to frame the Russell-Einstein Manifesto urging scientists to join forces against weapons of mass destruction. This manifesto led to the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, named for the first meeting place in Pugwash, Nova Scotia, in 1957.  For this work, Rotblat and Pugwash received the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize.

      The Hungarian-born physicist Leo Szilard prompted the first U.S. efforts to race Germany to the A-bomb when, in 1939, he proposed and drafted Albert Einstein’s warning letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. With Enrico Fermi, Szilard co-designed the world’s first nuclear reactor. Szilard worked as Chief Physicist for the Manhattan Project, but by 1944 he began to worry about how the bomb would be used during and after World War II. In the spring and summer of 1945, Szilard made three attempts to stop the bomb.

      1) In March, Szilard drafted another Einstein letter to President Roosevelt, this time warning about postwar consequences of a nuclear arms race. But Roosevelt died on 12th April before receiving that letter.


      2) In May, Szilard called on President Truman at the White House with a copy of Einstein’s letter but was sent by Truman’s appointments secretary to see James Byrnes, who Truman was about to name as Secretary of State. Byrnes saw the A-bomb as a useful weapon to intimidate the Soviets, and he dismissed Szilard’s appeal for international control of the atom.

      3) In June, working with Manhattan Project colleagues in Chicago, Szilard helped draft the Franck Committee Report (named for physicist James Franck) that recommended demonstrating the A-bomb before using it against civilians.[xx]  As we know, all three attempts to stop the bomb failed.

      So, in July 1945, Szilard organized a petition to President Truman that urged him to consider his “moral responsibilities” before using the new weapon.[xxi]  In all, 155 scientists signed different versions of this petition in Manhattan Project laboratories at Chicago and at Oak Ridge in Tennessee ― at Los Alamos, laboratory director J. Robert Oppenheimer banned the petition’s circulation. To undermine Szilard’s petition, General Groves ordered a poll of Manhattan Project scientists. But when 83% of those responding favored a demonstration of the bomb, the Army bureaucracy suppressed both the petition and the poll.[xxii]


      After Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Szilard led his scientific colleagues in successfully lobbying the U.S. Congress to shift the A-bomb’s control and development to a new civilian Atomic Energy Commission. To control the spread of nuclear weapons, Szilard urged talks between U.S. and Soviet scientists. He joined actively in the early Pugwash Conferences. And in 1960, during a private meeting with Nikita S. Khrushchev, Szilard persuaded the Soviet leader to agree to a Moscow-Washington “hot line” to help avoid an accidental nuclear war. In 1962, in Washington, Szilard founded America’s first political action committee for arms control, the Council for a Livable World, which continues to lobby against militarism and weapons of mass destruction. In his second career ― molecular biology ―  Szilard helped found the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany, and the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California. He died at La Jolla in 1964.

      But while Rotblat, Szilard, and like-minded scientists saw Hiroshima as their ultimate failure, many others considered the event a stunning success. Twentieth Century American history is dominated by the Three Ms: the Manhattan Project, the Marshall Plan, and the Moon Landing. Americans celebrate all three as examples of their dedication and “know-how.”  But what most Americans fail to realize is that all Three Ms were costly gambles that may well have failed. Indeed, General Groves raced to test and produce the first A-bombs for fear the war would end before they might be used.

      General Groves’s target committee had put four Japanese cities off-limits to conventional fire-bombing so the full effects of an A-bomb might be seen. These cities were Hiroshima, Kokura, Niigata, and Nagasaki. Sometimes the military mind employs especially perverse logic, such as when an American army commander in Vietnam explained, “It became necessary to destroy the town in order to save it.”[xxiii]  His mentor could well have been General Groves, whose similar but opposite strategy had to save four cities in order to destroy them. And Groves wanted to drop two bombs: a uranium bomb and a plutonium bomb. Why two? To justify both the uranium enrichment facility at Oak Ridge, and the plutonium production facility at Hanford, Washington.


      Americans remember President Truman as a decisive, plain-speaking chief executive, and after World War II he boasted that he “never had any qualms” about using the bomb. But I contend that Truman did not fully confront the reality of the bomb until after it had destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. As Franklin Roosevelt’s Vice President, Truman knew nothing about the Manhattan Project. He heard, vaguely, about a new weapon on the day he was sworn in as President after Roosevelt’s death. But then two weeks passed before he received a detailed briefing from Stimson and Groves. Truman was swept up by the Manhattan Project’s momentum, and he was dominated by Secretary of State Byrnes. At Potsdam on 25th July, Truman approved orders giving control over the bomb’s use to the Army.

      I contend that Truman only acted decisively on 10th August 1945 when he stopped U.S. plans to use a third bomb, then expected to be ready in about 10 days. As General Groves had written the orders, the A-bombs were to be used “as soon as made ready.”  To see and record the results, “visual bombing” was essential. Hiroshima was destroyed on 6th August.  Kokura was the next target chosen, but on 9th August bad weather there sent the B-29 named Bock’s Car to Nagasaki. On 10th August President Truman was briefed about the destruction of Hiroshima, and then he ordered that no more bombs be used without his express authorization. At a cabinet meeting that day, Commerce Secretary Henry A. Wallace recorded in his diary, “[Truman] said the thought of wiping out another 100,000 people was too horrible.  He didn’t like the idea of killing, as he said, ‘all those kids.’”[xxiv]

      *     *     *


      After considering these answers to three of the Twentieth Century’s most profound historical questions, you may wish to know what I think about Hiroshima.  Personally, I think that destroying Hiroshima was not necessary to end the war quickly;  Soviet entry to the Pacific war on 8th August and continuous Allied bombing would surely have forced Japan’s surrender before the planned invasions of Kyushu in November 1945 and Honshu in March 1946. I think that destroying Nagasaki is a moral outrage ― a perfect example of modernity and barbarism.

      Based on my studies, I think Hiroshima was bombed for several reasons ― but not primarily to save lives, as the orthodox view holds, and not primarily to intimidate the Soviets, as Alperovitz and some other revisionists believe. Before the fiftieth anniversary of Hiroshima, I chaired a roundtable discussion for historians at the U.S. Library of Congress, and from that session I synthesized their views for the Library’s magazine, Civilization.[xxv]  I have also conducted extensive research for a biography of Leo Szilard.[xxvi] 

      These experiences lead me to conclude that the bomb was dropped on Hiroshima for five reasons:

      1) To end the fighting quickly. The United States and the Allies were war-weary by the summer of 1945. Victory won in Europe still eluded them in the Pacific. Anything was worth a try to stop the fighting.

      2) Postwar diplomacy. Truman’s new Secretary of State,  James Byrnes, and a number of military leaders saw the awesome weapon as a way to make the Soviets “more manageable” ― first, by ending the Pacific War before they could join it in earnest; second, by countering political gains the Soviets had already made in Europe.

      3) Bureaucratic momentum. Fearing that Germany was working on an A-bomb, President Roosevelt began America’s research in 1939 and agreed to make it a high-priority project just before Japan’s surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941.  Building the bomb became a secret US$2 billion effort ― equivalent to US$20 billion today. In the end, the commitment to build the bomb produced a powerful impulse to use it.


      4) Political justification. Some American military and civilian leaders pushed the White House to use the bomb before Japan could surrender in order to justify those billions spent ― without congressional knowledge or approval. As an aide to the Under Secretary of War said, “If this thing works, they won’t investigate anything and if it doesn’t work ... they won’t investigate anything else.” And as Truman himself said in his 6th August announcement, “We have spent two billion dollars on the greatest scientific gamble in history ― we won.”

      5) Psychological factors. After four costly years of war, Americans in high office were eager to crush the enemy and bring the boys home.  Public feeling was running so high against the Japanese and their barbaric wartime behavior that many American leaders were in no mood to take additional casualties. (One post-war study found that 27% of Allied war prisoners died in Japanese custody, compared with 4% of those held by Germany and Italy.)  Racial hatreds against the Japanese were widespread.

      In my view, all five of these reasons led to Hiroshima.  Historians will continue to debate which

       

      reason might have been dominant. There is no simple explanation for Hiroshima. But, history is seldom

       

      very simple. And, we should recall, when history is made simple, the results can become very dangerous.

                                          ***

       William Lanouette is the author of Genius in the Shadows: A Biography of Leo Szilard, The Man Behind the Bomb. (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1994) He has earned an A.B. in English at Fordham College in New York City, and an M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Politics (Comparative Government) at the London School of Economics and Political Science. For more than 30 years, as a writer and public policy analyst, he has written about military and civilian uses of atomic energy for many publications, including The Atlantic Monthly, The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Civilization, The Economist, The Far Eastern Economic Review, National Journal, Scientific American, and The Wilson Quarterl



      [i]. 6th August 1945 “Statement by the President of the United States.”  Reproduced as Document 21 in Philip L. Cantelon, Richard G. Hewlett, and Robert C. Williams, editors. The American Atom (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Second Edition, 1991) 64-7.

      [ii]. J. Samuel Walker. Prompt & Utter Destruction: Truman and the Use of Atomic Bombs Against Japan (Chapel Hill & London: University of North Carolina Press, 1997) 104 note 12.

      [iii]. Henry L. Stimson. Harper’s Magazine, February 1947, 97-107.

      [iv]. Books presenting the orthodox view of Hiroshima include Herbert Feis. Japan Subdued: The Atomic Bomb and the End of the War in the Pacific (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961) and The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966); George Feifer. Tennozan: The Battle of Okinawa and the Atomic Bomb (New York: Tichnor & Fields, 1992);  Robert James Maddox. Weapons for Victory: the Hiroshima Decision Fifty Years Later (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1995); and Robert P. Newman. Truman and the Hiroshima Cult (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1995).

      [v]. Sadao Asada. “The Shock of the Atomic Bomb and Japan’s Decision to Surrender ― A Reconsideration.” Pacific Historical Review. Vol. 67 (November 1998) 484.

      [vi]. P.M.S. Blackett. (New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1947/8).

      [vii]. Gar Alperovitz. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1965. Expanded and updated, New York: Penguin Books, 1985). See also Alperovitz with Sanho Tree, Edward Rouse Winstead, Kathryn C. Morris, David J. Williams, Leo C. Maley III, Thad Williamson, and Miranda Greider The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth (New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1995).

      [viii]. Martin J. Sherwin. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975 and Vintage Books, 1977).

      [ix]. Barton J. Bernstein. (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1976).

      [x]. J. Samuel Walker 5-6. Books that present diverse explanations for the Hiroshima bombing include Ronald H. Spector.  Eagle Against the Sun: The American War with Japan (New York: Vintage Books, 1985); Vincent C. Jones. Manhattan, The Army and the Atomic Bomb (Washington DC: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1985); and John W. Dower. War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (New York: Pantheon, 1986).

      [xi]. Peter Jennings Reporting “Hiroshima: Why the Bomb Was Dropped.” ABC-TV News Special, 27th July 1995. Transcript page 7.

      [xii]. McGeorge Bundy to Barton J. Bernstein, 29th November 1991; McGeorge Bundy interview with Kai Bird, 2nd and 3rd December 1992 as cited in Kai Bird. The Color of Truth. McGeorge Bundy and William Bundy: Brothers in Arms (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998) 419 n 23.

      [xiii]. J. Samuel Walker 5.

      [xiv]. Sadao Asada 481.

      [xv]. Sadao Asada 483.

      [xvi]. Sadao Asada 498.

      [xvii]. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, World Heritage Committee, Twentieth Session, Merida, Mexico 2-7 December 1966. WHC-96/CONF.201/2. Page 57 of 87 at http://www.unesco.org/whc/archive/repcom96.htm and ANNEX V “Statements by China and the United States of America during the inscription of the Peace Memorial of Hiroshima (Genbaku Dome).”

      [xviii]. William Lanouette. “Catching the Flack,” a review of An Exhibit Denied: Lobbying the History of Enola Gay (see note 19). Washington Post Book World, 2nd March 1997, 1 and 10.

      [xix]. Books about the Smithsonian Institution exhibit include Philip Nobile, editor. Judgment at the Smithsonian: The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (New York: Marlowe, 1995); Martin Harwit. An Exhibit Denied: Lobbying the History of Enola Gay (New York: Copernicus-SpringerVerlag, 1996); and Kai Bird & Lawrence Lifschultz, editors. Hiroshima’s Shadow: Writing on the Denial of History and the Smithsonian Controversy (Stony Creek CT: The Pamphleteer’s Press, 1998).

      [xx]. “A Report to the Secretary of War” by James Franck, Donald J. Hughes, J.J. Nickson, Eugene Rabinowitch, Glenn T. Seaborg, Joyce C. Stearns, and Leo Szilard. Reproduced in Morton Grodzins & Eugene Rabinowitch, editors. The Atomic Age (New York & London: Basic Books, 1963) 19-27.

      [xxi]. “Chicago Scientists’ Petition to the President, 17th July 1945" Reproduced as Document 20, in Philip L. Cantelon, Richard G. Hewlett, and Robert C. Williams, editors. The American Atom (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991) 63-4. See also William Lanouette, “Three Attempts to Stop the Bomb...” in Bird & Lifschultz 99-118. Leo Szilard first mentioned his petition publicly in a December 1945 speech, but it was not described in print until 1956. The petition was declassified beginning in 1957, but all versions and related letters were not released until 1961. The anthology The Atomic Age (see note 20) was the first to publish a complete copy of Szilard’s petition, in 1963.

      [xxii]. William Lanouette, “A Note on the 17th July Petition.” In Bird & Lifschultz, 557-60.

      [xxiii]. Attributed to an American officer firing on Ben Tre, Vietnam. 8th February 1968. John Bartlett. Familiar Quotations, 16th Edition (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1992) 784.

      [xxiv]. J. Samuel Walker 86.

      [xxv]. The Library of Congress roundtable on “Why We Dropped the Bomb” included Gar Alperovitz, John W. Dower, George Feifer, Stanley Goldberg, James G. Hershberg, Janne Nolan, and Martin J. Sherwin.

      miwakokurosen * Hiroshima,Nagasaki and ,,, * 02:44 * comments(0) * trackbacks(0) * - -

      Hiroshima surviver, Medical Dr. Shuntaro Hida, 96 years old:"Dangers of INTERNAL Radiation Exposure"

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            http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JONsKfdn_-M

        Dr. Shuntaro Hida: Dangers of INTERNAL Radiation Exposure

        公開日: 2012/08/08   http://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/


              http://savekidsjapan.blogspot.jp/2012/09/shuntaro-hida-at-press-conference.html

            Press Conference at Foreign Correspondents' Club in Japan, Nov.15,2011

                                           ****

          

         
           
            Dr.Hida Shuntaro

              Dr Hida, born in 1917, is a well known medical practitioner, highly regarded for his long-standing activities to save victims of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs. On the day of Hiroshima bombing, 6 August 1945, at 8:15 AM, Dr Hida, as a 28 year old military surgeon, was treating a child in Hesaka village, 7km north of Hiroshima city.

           He felt a blinding flash, a wave of heat on his face and arms and was thrown to the next room.  As soon as he able, he searched for the child. Fortunately, he saw a small hand sticking out from the rubble.  Dr Hida  managed to claw the child out of the rubble and escape to safety.

           Afterward, on his way to Hiroshima city on his bicycle, he encountered many people who had lost semblance of humanity.  At first sight, it appeared that their tattered clothes were hanging from their bodies, and black water was dripping from their hands.  As he came closer, he saw the hanging tattered rags were skin, and the black water was blood.

           From then on, with other surgeons and nurses, Dr Hida treated atomic bomb victims in the Hesaka branch of Hiroshima Military Hospital . They had heard via the Kure Navy base that the bomb that had destroyed Hiroshima was described by US broadcasting as an atomic bomb. However the relationship of the name of the bomb and the peculiar symptoms of the victims were unknown to Dr Hida and to other surgeons.  A tremendous number of atomic bomb victims and survivors continued to exhibit high temperature, ecrosis of the mouth, purpura, bleeding, loss of hair, diarrhea, vomiting, etc.

           Another abnormal phenomenon was that many people who were not in Hiroshima at the time of bombing began to die of the same symptoms.  The first such person encountered by Dr Hida insisted, in his dying words, that he had not experienced the pika.  Victims of the first atomic bombing on Japan had described the new type of bombs as “pika” which means flashing. So why had people who had not been in Hiroshima experienced the same symptoms as the direct victims of the bomb?  

           Dr Hida became interested to find out about those who were not in Hiroshima at the time of the bombing but exhibited the same symptoms as those who were and also to find out about those who did not suffer from these symptoms, but had lost the energy, even to walk, and had lost immunity.

        In early 1946, the director of the hospital where Dr Hida was working, told all doctors, personnel and patients about the official notice from the Minister of Health and Welfare not to keep records about the atomic bomb hazards in any form, as they are the US military’s classified matters.

           In 1949 the US ABCC (Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission) was established in Hiroshima.  The Commission examined victims, and collected their data, but did not treat them.  The organs of deceased victims were taken to America for research purposes.  Only the victims’ thumbs were given back to their families and relatives.

           Japanese academics were prohibited to do research and surveys of atomic bombs. The findings and data of atomic bomb victims by a medical team at Kyoto University were taken by the US Occupation forces. As a result no information about atomic bomb related disease were supplied to Japanese medical practitioners.

           In 1950, Dr Hida opened a small clinic in Tokyo. Atomic bomb victims began to visit the clinic. He became known as a “Hibakusha Doctor” (medical practitioner who was exposed to the atomic bomb radiation).  His patients had been abandoned by their government, the medical system, and their families, and were living in poverty and secrecy.  By the time they reached Dr Hida, it was usually too late, and many died without proper treatment and care.

           When Dr Hida began to talk (in secret) in Tokyo about his experiences of the Hiroshima atomic bomb, he was constantly under the surveillance of the US Military Police and often threatened by them.  When atomic bomb victims formed an organization, “Japan Confederation of A-and H-Bomb Sufferers Organizations” in 1956, they were regarded by the US and Japanese authorities as anti-American, and the surveillance of victims all over Japan became more zealous.  Dr Hida is now the chairperson of the Central Consulting Centre of the above organization.

        (based on HIDA Shuntaro & KAMANAKA Hitomi, 

           the Menace of Internal Exposure to Radiation, 

         Chikuma Shobo, Tokyo, 2005)

                                                  ***             

           Message from Dr HIDA Shuntaro to the Association for Citizens and Scientists concerned about Internal Radiation ExposuresACSIR


           “To Fight against the Harm of Internal Radiation Exposures !”

            After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011, since early May the number of telephone enquiries has increased, from mothers concerned about their children’s diarrhea, mouth ulcer, nose bleeding, purpura, feeling of fatigue, etc.  These symptoms are similar to the early symptoms of victims of Hiroshima/Nagasaki atomic bombs, in particular of those people who entered in the cities after the bombing.

           My intuition tells me that these symptoms may be due to internal exposure to radiation that was released by the accident, and I have been keeping my eye on the development.

           The mothers’ anxiety and concern about the radiation hazard for their children are greater than I imagined, and spreading nationwide.  The approaches and announcements by the government, TEPCO (Tokyo Electric Power Company), academics and specialists in the field did not respond to the people’s anxieties about their lives. 

          On the contrary the recommendations by the government, TEPCO, academics and specialists were to respond to the industry of nuclear power who demand the continuation and strengthening of nuclear power.  From my own experience, the issues needed for enlightenment are as follows:

        1.                   1.    about radiation itself

        2.                   2.  meanings of external exposure, and internal exposure

        3.                   3.  about human’s immune strength against natural radiation

        4.                   4. about the relationship between human beings and artificial radiation (explosion of nuclear weapons, made in nuclear power stations)

        5.                    5.  about the fact that there is no remedy for damages from radiation exposure, and there is no effect of injections or medicines

        6.                   6.  there is no way for irradiated victims to fight with radiation but to protect themselves from falling ill with their own life force and their way of life.

        7.                    7.  It is said that the best way is to emigrate to far and safe places from the radiation releasing nuclear power plant, and not to take contaminated food and water.  However the most important issue is what and how to respond to the problem for those who cannot do so.

           I hear that in the Association for Citizens and Scientists concerned about Internal Radiation Exposures there are people from many walks of life, medical practitioners, lawyers, academics, and also citizens without particular titles and expertise.  I hope they discuss, consult/educate each other, send out information and opinions to society, and achieve to find a way to fight with harms of internal exposure to radiation.

                                             ***

                                                 






        miwakokurosen * TEPCO Fukushima NuclearPower Plants * 07:07 * comments(0) * trackbacks(0) * - -

        Dr. Helen Caldicott 's Fukushima Symposium: The Medical and Ecological Consequences of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident l March 11-12, 2013 The New York Academy of Medicine

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            Helen Caldicott: The meaning of Fukushima

          24 Mar 2013 l radioecoshock

           From New York City: a dose of the awful truth from the long-term nuclear guardian, Dr. Helen Caldicott. In her time to speak on the second anniversary of the Fukushima Dai-ichi triple melt-down in Japan - Helen lays it out.

           Due to increased radiation, toxic chemicals and climate change, life on earth is in the Intensive Care Unit.

           Caldicott says it's up to us - we are all physicians for the Earth now. It's a powerful speech from a famous force for sanity.

            Recorded at the symposium "The Medical and Ecological Consequences of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident" by the Helen Caldicott Foundation and Physicians for Nuclear Responsibility. Edited for radio by Alex Smith of Radio Ecoshock. 31 minutes.

            Download/listen here:http://www.ecoshock.org/downloads/nuclear/ES_Caldicott_0313_LoFi.mp3


            
          Symposium: The Medical and Ecological Consequences of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident l March 11-12, 2013 Update: online archive now available

           Symposium Update: online archive now available at live stream link: http://www.totalwebcasting.com/view/?id=hcf


           The online permanent archive is available now: Thanks to all who attended the symposium in person, and to the over 4300 people in more in 650 cities around the world who attended online. We have had many requests and questions for/about the online archive. It is now up at the Live Stream link: http://www.totalwebcasting.com/view/?id=hcf . 


            Click on presenter names to go directly to any individual presentation. Click on Documents to access available power points. Please share widely, but remember to give proper attribution to the speakers and their colleagues if that has been requested.

            We are pleased to make this permanent archive available for free, but we still have work we would like to do. Among other things, we would like to translate the presentations into japanese and subtitle them so that the country under the most urgent duress from the Fukushima nuclear disaster will have greater and better access.  To this end we ask that if you feel this is a service you appreciate, and that is useful to you and others, please consider donating toward our work on making it available to a greater audience. Even $5 from every person who views it would help go a long way towards making further translation possible.

               http://nuclearfreeplanet.org/categories/fukushima.html    

                                      ***

                      http://nuclearfreeplanet.org/symposium.html

              Symposium: The Medical and Ecological Consequences of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident l March 11-12, 2013

              The New York Academy of Medicine, New York City, NY

              A unique, two-day symposium at which an international panel of leading medical and biological scientists, nuclear engineers, and policy experts will make presentations on and discuss the bio-medical and ecological consequences of the Fukushima disaster, will be held at The New York Academy of Medicine on March 11-12, 2013, the second anniversary of the accident. The public is welcome.

             A project of The Helen Caldicott Foundation, the symposium is being co-sponsored by Physicians for Social Responsibility.

                  

          The Presenters:

          The event will be chaired by Donald Louria, MD: Chairman Emeritus of the Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey.

          Confirmed speakers include:

          Dr. Tim Mousseau, Professor of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina – Chernobyl, Fukushima and Other Hot Places, Biological Consequences

          Ken Buesseler, Marine Scientist, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute –Consequences for the Ocean of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

          David Lochbaum, The Union of Concerned Scientists – Another Unsurprising Surprise

          Dr. Wladimir Wertelecki, President of the Board, OMNI-Net Ukraine Child Development Programs (current). Professor of Biomedical Anthropology (Adjunct) Graduate Program in Biomedical Anthropology, State University of New York at Binghamton, NY (2011-). Former Chair of the Department of Medical Genetics and Birth Defects, University of South Alabama, 1974-2010 - Congenital Malformations in Rivne Polossia and the Chernobyl Accident

          Dr. Marek Niedziela, Professor of Pediatrics, Poznan (Poland) University of Medical Sciences – Thyroid Pathology in Children with Particular Reference to Chernobyl and Fukushima

          Dr. Alexy Yablokov, Russian Academy of Sciences – Lessons from Chernobyl

          Akio Matsumura, Founder of Global Forum for Parliamentary Leaders on Global Survival – What did the World Learn from the Fukushima Accident?

          Robert Alvarez, Senior Scholar, Institute for Policy Studies, formerly of DoE - Management of Spent Fuel Pools and Radioactive Waste

          Arnie Gundersen, Nuclear Engineer, Fairewinds Associates – What Did They Know and When Did They Know It?

          Dr. David Brenner, Higgins Professor Radiation Biophysics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University – Mechanistic Models for Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Living Systems

          Dr. Steven Wing, Associate Professor Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University North Carolina - Epidemiologic studies of radiation releases from nuclear facilities: Lessons past and present.

          Steven Starr, Senior Scientist, Physicians for Social Responsibility, Clinical Laboratory Science Program Director, University of Missouri - The implications of the massive contamination of Japan with radioactive cesium

          David Freeman, Engineer and Attorney, Former Chairman of TVA, Office of Science and Technology in charge of energy and the environment in the Johnson White House, and for 2 years under Nixon –The Rise and Fall of Nuclear Power

          Dr. Ian Fairlie, Radiation Biologist and Independent Consultant on Radiation Risks, Former Scientific Secretary to UK Government’s Committee Examining Radiation Risks from Internal Emitters – The Nuclear Disaster at Fukushima: Nuclear Source Terms, Initial Health Effects

          Andrew S. Kanter, MD MPH FACMI, Immediate Past-President of Physicians for Social Responsibility – Moderator, Health Effects Panel.

          Dr. Hisako Sakiyama, Doctor of Medicine, Former Senior Researcher in National Institute Radiological Sciences, Member of Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigative Commission  - Risk Assessment of Low Dose Radiation in Japan; What Became Clear to The National Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission

          Dr. Herbert Abrams, Stanford University, Emeritus Professor Radiology, Stanford University, Member Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Committee National Academy Sciences (BEIR V11)  - "The Hazards of Low-level Ionizing Radiation: Controversy and Evidence."

          Kevin Kamps, Specialist in High Level Waste Management and Transportation, Beyond Nuclear – Seventy Years of Radioactive Risks in Japan and America

          Mary Olson, Nuclear Information and Resource Service, Southeast - Gender Matters in the Atomic Age

          Cindy Folkers, Radiation and Health Specialist, Beyond Nuclear - Post-Fukushima Food Monitoring

          Hiroaki Koide, Master of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), Specialist of Radiation Safety and Control.  

          Dr. Helen Caldicott, Founding President Physicians for Social Responsibility – The Nuclear Age and Future Generations

                                      ***
                                                   

               Japanese concerned persons deeply appreciate Dr.Helen Caldicott 's initiative to hold this comprehensive, scientificaly and ethically just symposium on Fukushima disastor!

              Unformtunately, jn Japan, this kind of symposium could not be organized and held due to various pressures.

          miwakokurosen * TEPCO Fukushima NuclearPower Plants * 06:41 * comments(0) * trackbacks(0) * - -

          Please help Japanese children. Mari Takenouchi、Journalist, A mother of three year old son

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            Epilogue Please Help Japanese Kids!

              Mari Takenouchi Journalist, A mother of three year old son

            ( http://savekidsjapan.blogspot.jp/2013/01/xv-attachment-under-construction.html )
             
             
            I came to know the issue of nuclear power for the first time in the summer of 1999.  A US scientist talked about the possibility of station blackout of nuclear power plant in relation with Y2K.  Until I heard her lecture, I have never heard of any danger of nuclear power plant in my life and was greatly shocked.  Even after the Chernobyl, Japanese media was telling us that accident is totally irrelevant to Japan since the type of nuclear reactor was different, and I simply believed it. 

            What shocked me most was the large number of late death compared to the small number of immediate death.  "I didn't know there is such a horror in this society..." While I was translating the nuclear station-blackout scenario, I just couldn't stop crying.
             I was very quick to get down to the action once I got to know its danger.  I went to Prime Minister’s Residence with a person I got to know, and talked to the Cabinet Secretary Crisis Management Officer with the information I translated.  The Officer scolded both me and the man who introduced me to him, yelling, “Japanese nuclear power is absolutely safe.  Do not bring a weird person in this office!” 
             、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、、

            Now the accident did happen and I am deeply sad.  What made me astounded was that the government of Japan concealed the emitted radiation after the accident.  Specifically, the SPEEDI data was secretly passed onto the US military on the night of 14th while it was concealed from the people.  Also, the real time rising radiation data was not announced to the public including Tokyo in the early morning of 15th thought the US military advised Japanese government.  So the people were not asked to stay inside and lots of people were outside including me.

             Mr. Yukio Edano, the then Chief Cabinet Secretary repeated only, “There will be no immediate health hazards.” He did not give any warning during 15th when the radioactive cloud was thickest in Tokyo, leaving tens of millions of people exposed to radiation. 
             On the 13th, I answered the interview of French reporter in the anti-nuclear NGO saying that the Japanese government was concealing the information.  On the 14th, I wanted to give information to Foreign Correspondents’ Club in Japan along with a Hiroshima radiation exposed doctor regarding the danger of internal radiation so that foreign media would give warning to Japanese people since no Japanese media was doing it.


             (After all, it wasn’t realized since the doctor was concerned that it would be disturbing for rescue works conducted for Tsunami victims.)

             It really didn’t cross my mind that the government would conceal the real time radiation data.  Then we got exposed and we had some symptoms and thyroid nodules I wrote in the beginning. 
                
            http://savekidsjapan.blogspot.jp/2013/01/315.html

             I think the most important issue on this nuclear accident is the already emerging health damages that would become really serious in the future. In order to appeal this point, I organized a press conference called, “No More Hibakusha, No More Nuclear Power”at Foreign Correspondents’ Club in Tokyo on November 2011, there has been almost no report though there were 40 or 50 journalists at the site.

             I believe this absence of major report on health damages emerging in Japan is the issue of paramount concern in the aftermath of Fukushima nuclear accident.  Below are the speakers in order of the presentation. In order to know the real consequences of radiation exposed people, I hope you would see this 1 hour youtube video.

             http://www.ustream.tv/recorded/18530453  

             The following are the speakers in order; 

              Mari Takenouchi (Coordinator/interpreter, low level radiation hibakusya) 

              Dr. Shuntaro Hida (physician & Hiroshima A bomb hibakusha),

              Matashichi Oishi, Hibakusha (former Lucky Dragon crew),

              Sachiko Sato (representative, Fukushima Network for Saving Children),

              Ryusuke Umeda (former power plant worker)

             Lastly, the current Prime Minister Abe is not only pro nuclear power but also pro nuclear weapon.  In 2002, at a lecture made in Waseda University, he stated, “If an enemy gets ready for an attack, we should recognize it as an attack.  An inter-continental ballistic missile is not unconstitutional.  If it is a small sized one, it wouldn’t be a problem to possess a nuclear weapon.” 
              The Vice Prime Minister Taro Aso is also pro-nuclear weapon and said, “Possessing a nuclear weapon should be one of our option,” when he was a Foreign Minister.

              、、、、、、、、、、

            Particularly, owing to these small number of idiot politicians, our beautiful land is being harmed permanently and our most precious treasure, children and future generation’s DNAs are being damaged at this moment.  I cannot overlook this anymore.  Without supports from conscience citizens and international organizations, Japanese children would be slaughtered in many years to come by this foolish government.

             
              Please help Japanese children.  This is my sincerest hope.

              Mari Takenouchi Journalist, A mother of three year old son

              http://savekidsjapan.blogspot.jp/2013/01/xv-attachment-under-construction.html 

                      ***

             Full contents and update information would be found her website!  Please access to this ->   http://savekidsjapan.blogspot.jp/ 

            miwakokurosen * TEPCO Fukushima NuclearPower Plants * 13:40 * comments(0) * trackbacks(0) * - -

            Mr. Gensuke Tokoro's plan for Fukushima Children and comments on Fukushima Daiichi Plant Accident (New Year, 2013):

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              JUGEMテーマ:ニュース
               

               My plan for Fukushima children and comments on Fukushima Daiichi Plant Accident (Jan.1, 2013)

                  Gensuke Tokoro  < Hitotsubashi University, Instituteof Innovation Research, Professor(Special Appointment) >

               With the sad situation in Fukushima(after surveying 20% of the child population it is reported that 43.7% of the children have thyroid abnormality of A2-Level and above),  I lost the enthusiasm to greet people on the occasion of the new year. But I am determined to do everything possible to save the children of Fukushima.

               This year I am planning to start a "radiation-free-camp-program" in Gifu to provide a temporarily radiation free environment for the children of Fukushima who received radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Accident which occurred on March 11, 2011.
               
                The 18 years experience of Belarus's radiation-free-camp (more than 60,000 children have received radiation free environment and food & water) indicates the possibilities of improvement and cure by providing "radiation-affected-children" a temporarily "radiation-free-environment and food & water".

              I plan to take in 100 children (Fukushima has approximately 360,000 children under 18) for 40 days per year(10 days in Spring, 20 days in Summer and 10 days in Winter) in Gifu every year. This type of camp is now only available in Kumejima, Okinawa with 50 children capacity. While the Belarusi (GDP is 2% of Japan) government provides 80% subsidy, our government, currently, provides none. The camp will cost approximately 100 US$ per day per child. Therefore, one year cost of the camp for 100 children is estimated to be US$400,000.

                Contrary to the image that Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Accident is now under control, an image which our government and media are doing their best to create, various data coming out of Fukushima and other regions of Japan on radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant provides a "Gloomy-Japan-Future" as given below:
               

                1. Japanese government says that the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Accident is smaller than Chernobyl. False.

               Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant had total of 720 million TBq radiation materials at the site at the time of the accident. Chernobyl Accident released 5.2 million TBq into the environment. Therefore, Fukushima Accident is potentially 138 times bigger than Chernobyl.

              2. Japanese government says that Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Accident was a hydrogen explosion. Inaccurate. Plant#3(Fukushima Daiichi has 4 plants) is thought to be a nuclear explosion (see Nature 2011, December 15 by the past Prime Minister of Japan, Dr.Yukio Hatoyama). Only Plants #1,#2 and #4 are hydrogen explosions which spread less radiated materials and radiation to the environment than a nuclear explosion.

                3. Japanese government took a long time (two months) before it admitted a "meltdown.". It is still trying to conceal the situation. Most people consider that the melting fuel rods (2,800 degrees centigrade and 100MT in weight per plant) passed through the reactor and have reached underground , therefore, a "melt-through". This implies that our underground water is or will soon be heavily contaminated.

               4. Japanese government failed to provide the evacuation information and direction to the people  in the highly radiated area(a system developed by the government, SPEEDI  was never mobilized ). It also did not send instructions (required by law) to administer iodine drugs stored in the nearby town administration offices. The result of this sabotage is detrimental. This mistake/delayed action will be reflected in the health of the future Japanese populations.

               5. The health survey (thyroid abnormality of A2 and above) of the children of Fukushima revealed a dramaticall increase from the normal 0.5% or less (2010 estimate) to 35.8%  (2011 )and 43.7% (2012). The same figure was at less than 0.5% even in Chernobyl , two years after the accident. Now the Japanese government is reluctant to carry out this important health survey. It has, to-date, conducted health inspection to only 20% of the 360,000 children in Fukushima .

                It is in humane but the Japanese government suggests a medical follow-up inspection, to those who have been diagnosed as positive(A2 over), only after two years. They also do not recommend patients to receive a second opinion outside of Fukushima. Japanese government seems incapable of protecting it's people, and so insensitive.


               6. Japanese government in essence follows the IAEA (USA) guidance whenever convenient. It has set an easy safety tolerance level for food and water for the industry.  For instance the permissible Becquerel (Bq) level for food was set at 500 Bq per kilogram from March, 2011 up to March, 2012(changed to 100Bq/kg from April, 2012 with some exceptions), and for water it was 100 Bq/liter which is now decreased to10Bq/liter. 

              There is, in essence, no scientific proof that food and water are safe at this level. For instance, the USA water permissible upper limit is 0.111 Bq per liter. It is difficult to say which country standard is correct. The ECRR ( the European equivalent to the USA IAEA) recommendation for food is 8 Bq per kilogram or below.

              Our government is sacrificing our people by setting easy-to-meet food and water safety limits for the food industry. In addition, Japanese government's food and water inspection capacity is about 700 inspections per day which is much too insufficient to assure safety for the entire country. In effect this implies and sends a "no-government-control" message to the food industry. So the food industry is relaxed and encouraged to blend radiated food items to their maximum permitted level. In contrast, Belarus conducts over 30,000 inspections per day.

               7. Japanese government has permitted the re-operating of two nuclear plants (Ooi Nuclear Power Plant) which lies about 60kilometers north of Gifu and 100km north of Nagoya and east of Kyoto. These nuclear plants sit on top of highly earthquake prone area. Leading geologists warn of high possibilities of a major earthquake(magnitude 8 to 9 within 30 years) in this area. In spite the Japanese government shows no intent to discontinue them, rather the new Japanese government has recently announced the intent to revive all the nuclear plants(54 plants) in the future. They are completely unscientific and uncontrollable.

               8. Japanese government has repeatedly said that our economy will collapse if we stop our nuclear power plants. They warn about the blackouts without nuclear energy and the high electricity costs and the future shortages of oil, natural gas etcetera.
                The truth is Japan, without nuclear energy, still has twice the electricity supply capacity over demand. The electric power industry's biggest issue is "over supply". This is hardly ever mentioned.

               As you know nuclear plants can only manufacture "electricity". We cannot run our cars, ships and planes with nuclear energy(electricity". So, without oil energy our economy will stop but without nuclear energy our economy will continue. In addition, the cost of nuclear power electricity in the "cost of production" of our industry has never exceeded 3% 

              (commonly 1.5% or less). So nuclear power's contribution to the Japanese industry is negligible.

               Japanese -government-estimate of the nuclear power cost is the cheapest amongst hydro, coal, LNG and oil power costs. This is so untrue. In reality, it is by far the highest when the cost calculation includes the spent fuel waste treatment and storage costs(these costs may be roughly 300 to 30,000 times the total sales!) and decommissioning costs. CO2 release is the highest from nuclear power generated electricity if one coverts these disguised costs into the CO2  calculations.

                9. Japanese government estimates the accident rate of nuclear plants to be about 100,000 to 1. False. When we include the Fukushima Accident, the accident probability jumps up to about 250 to 1 in Japan. We have operated, in aggregate, approximately 1,000 nuclear plant-years. We have had 4 plant-years accidents (Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant has 6 plants of which 4 resulted in the accident on March 11, 2011).

                Therefore, in Japan, the accident rate is 4 out of 1,000, or 1 out of 250. This means that if we reopen 50 plants we have a chance to experience another major nuclear accident in 5 years time, which is by 2017.


                                    ****
               
                 Mr.
              Gensuke Tokoro articulates severly about Japan 's reality.  
                  I deeply apperciate his clear view and vision.

                
                                     ***


                    
                  

                   

                   
                      

                   





                   
                    ***


                  
              miwakokurosen * TEPCO Fukushima NuclearPower Plants * 20:27 * comments(0) * trackbacks(0) * - -

              Deep Appreciation Mrs.Beate Sirota Gordon,Japanese Constitution drafter

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                JUGEMテーマ:ニュース
                 
                   On Dec.30, 2011, Japanese Constitution drafter Beate Sirota Gordon passes away at 89.
                  Gordon’s daughter, Nicole, told the press that her mother’s last public statements were about opposition to the potential changes to Japan’s constitution under Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.
                  She was most concerned with preserving the peace clause and the sections on women’s rights.
                 
                ( http://japandailypress.com/japanese-constitution-drafter-beate-sirota-gordon-passes-away-at-89-0220700 )

                    " The artcle 9  is a kind of " Pearl" nurnured from the War!", she expressed!   ( Tokyo Shimbun, Jan.3.2013)

                                                    ***
                                      May her soul rest in peace!
                 
                   Japanese women, who have supported by the artcle 14 and 24 of  the Constituion of Japan, will make every efforts to" preserve the peace clause ! "
                    
                   
                       
                                                  
                miwakokurosen * The Constituion of Japan * 17:10 * comments(0) * trackbacks(0) * - -

                The Emperor’s deep thoughts on TEPCO Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accidents, radiation and Okinawa.

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                  JUGEMテーマ:ニュース
                   

                    His Majesty the Emperor's New Year Thoughts 2013

                    A second winter since the Great East Japan Earthquake has come around.

                    At the dawn of the new year, my heart goes out to the afflicted people, those who cannot return to the places they used to live because of radioactive contamination and those who have to spend the cold harsh winter in temporary housing.

                    I sincerely hope that, in the future, the experience of the damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami will be fully utilized in disaster prevention education and town planning so that the country moves towards assuring safety and security in the lives of the people.

                  Our country is now going through difficult times because of the earthquake and other factors, but it is my wish that the people's hearts will always be with the afflicted, and that everyone will support one another to overcome the various challenges.

                   It is my hope that the new year will be better, even a little, for the people of Japan and the people of the world.

                   <http://www.kunaicho.go.jp/e-okotoba/01/gokanso/shinnen-h25.html >

                                                   ***

                   His Majesty the Emperor's New Year Thoughts (Jan.1,2012)

                   Last year, it pained me greatly to see that many lives were lost to natural disasters, the Great East Japan Earthquake in the spring and torrential rains in many places in the summer and in the autumn.

                   My heart also goes out to the people who regrettably can no longer live in the places they used to live because of the radioactive contamination caused by the nuclear plant accident. Last year was a truly distressing year. However, it has been heartening to note that, even under such conditions, the people were helping each other and many people were working hard to support the victims.

                  This year, our country has to make various plans towards reconstruction and decide on guidelines for the future. At the same time, it is expected to be a year in which our country has to tackle many difficult challenges, including the disposal of the debris from the disaster. It is my sincere hope that people will bring together their wisdom and that those involved in the various tasks can work under safe conditions.

                  Our country is now going through difficult times because of the earthquake and other factors, but I hope that the people's hearts will always be with the afflicted, and that everyone will persevere and work together to build a brighter tomorrow.

                   It is my hope that the new year will be a good, peaceful year for the people of Japan and the people of the world.

                  <http://www.kunaicho.go.jp/e-okotoba/01/gokanso/shinnen-h24.html>

                                                        ***

                   Address by His Majesty the Emperor on the Occasion of the Memorial Service to Commemorate the First Anniversary of the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2012)

                  As we commemorate the first anniversary of the Great East Japan Earthquake, together with the people gathered here today, I would like to express my deepest condolences for the many people who lost their lives in this earthquake.

                  A year ago today, Japan was struck by an unexpectedly huge earthquake and tsunami, which resulted in almost twenty thousand dead and missing persons. We must not forget that this included many people, including fire fighters, who lost their lives as they devoted themselves to relief operations and disaster control without regard for their own safety.

                   As this earthquake and tsunami caused the nuclear power plant accident, those living in areas designated as the danger zone lost their homes and livelihoods and had to leave the places they used to live. In order for them to live there again safely, we have to overcome the problem of radioactive contamination, which is a formidable task.

                  After the earthquake, many people, including members of the Government and the local authorities as well as many volunteers, went to the afflicted areas and carried out various efforts to support the afflicted people. I am sure their activities helped to comfort the evacuees living under harsh conditions and encouraged them to think positively about the future. I would like to take this opportunity to express my deepest gratitude to the people who have worked for the afflicted people and afflicted regions and those who have been trying to contain the damage from the nuclear power plant accident.

                  Many people overseas responded to the disaster by sending us relief teams and offering us help in various ways. In many cables of sympathy I received from the foreign heads of state, they commented that they were truly impressed by how, under severe conditions, the afflicted people were helping each other and working towards reconstruction with a strong sense of solidarity. I am deeply grateful to the kindnesses shown by the people around the world.

                  It is expected that many difficult challenges lie ahead in the reconstruction of the afflicted areas. It is my hope that the people's hearts will always be with the afflicted people and the afflicted regions, and that everyone will continue to work towards improving the conditions of those areas. It is important for us to never forget this disaster and hand down the lessons we learned to future generations, and foster the proper attitude towards disaster prevention, with the aim of making our country a safer place.

                  In closing, I would like to express my hope that Japan will become once again a country where people can live with a sense of security and again offer my sincere condolences for all those who lost their lives in the Great East Japan Earthquake.

                  < http://www.kunaicho.go.jp/e-okotoba/01/address/okotoba-h24e.html#0311>

                                  ***

                   Press Conference on the occasion of His Majesty's Birthday (Dec.23,2012)     - extract-

                    Taking this opportunity, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude for all the concern shown me by the people when I underwent heart surgery in February of this year, such as those who came to sign the register books at the Palace and elsewhere during this period. I would also like to thank all the people who continue to wish me well.

                  A year and nine months has gone by since the Great East Japan Earthquake, and the cold, harsh winter is back again in the afflicted areas. There are people who are unable to return to their homes they used to live in because of radioactive contamination, and people who must spend their second winter in temporary housing covered in snow.

                  My heart goes out to all those afflicted. The number of dead or missing at the time of the disaster was reported to be over 18,000, but since then, there have been more than 2,000 disaster-related deaths, bringing the total number of victims to over 20,000. Many who survived the terrible earthquake and tsunami lost their lives because of harsh living conditions where sufficient medical care and other needs could not be provided. I feel this is indeed a tragedy. Recovery and reconstruction efforts in the afflicted areas include radioactive decontamination, removal of possible asbestos-containing debris harmful to health, and other dangerous tasks. Many of these operations pose health risks to those engaged in them, which is of deep concern.

                  The Empress and I observed the radioactive decontamination operation being carried out in the village of Kawauchi in Fukushima Prefecture. The work consisted of climbing onto a roof and hosing away the contamination with water, work requiring great caution and concentration, which could lead to an accident otherwise. I sincerely hope that all operations will be carried out safely.

                    、、、、、

                  Our last visit to Okinawa was 8 years ago, and many of the places we went to this time included places we had never been to before. The Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, or O.I S.T., was one such place. We had been to Onnason before, but not to the O.I.S.T., and it was also the first time for us to visit Manzamo. Another first for us was the island of Kumejima. Whenever we visit Okinawa, the Empress and I visit the graves of the war dead to offer our prayers. As this visit included both our regular stops, where we offer our prayers on each visit, as well as new places, I feel I have been able to deepen my understanding of Okinawa even further. Manzamo is a historical place which has been sung in the Okinawan poetry Ryu-ka, and I was moved to have been able to visit this place. We had a great view of Mt. Onnadake. I feel that the Deep Sea Water Research Center in Kumejima could be of importance to that island in various ways. The warm welcome we received by so many people in Okinawa shall always remain in our hearts.

                  I am aware of the many difficulties the people of Okinawa have had to endure. That is all the more why I feel it is so important that not only the people of Okinawa but also all the people of Japan are always mindful of the many problems Okinawa is facing. No other place in Japan has experienced ground warfare where so many lives were lost. I am deeply concerned that over the years this history, too, may gradually be forgotten. I feel it is important for all Japanese people to share with the people of Okinawa the memory of the calamity sustained by Okinawa in the last war. 

                  <  http://www.kunaicho.go.jp/e-okotoba/01/press/kaiken-h24e.html >

                                                                ***  

                     Whenever I heard the Emperor's deep words, I have wondered how much the Japanese Prime Ministers, Cabinet Members, bureaucrats, academics and mass media  have worked for those problems  honestly and sincerely!    

                                           

                                     


                  miwakokurosen * Japan Report “The 3.11’s Revelation-Japan 's Sustainable Future" * 09:30 * comments(0) * trackbacks(0) * - -

                  Reg.Fukushima victims ,UN Special Rapporteur's Press Statement Press Release 12-058-E 26/11/2012

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                    JUGEMテーマ:ニュース
                      
                       Please access to the UN site (http://unic.or.jp/unic/press_release/2869/ )and
                    find out how Japanese government is not helping Fukushima disasters victims !
                                            ***

                    UN Special Rapporteur's Press Statement 
                    Press Release 12-058-E 26/11/2012

                    UN Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health,

                    by Mr. Anand Grover , Country Visit to Japan, 15 to 26 November 2012
                    Press-statement , Tokyo, 26 November 2012


                    miwakokurosen * Human rights * 11:51 * comments(0) * trackbacks(0) * - -

                    ”Fukushima Declaration of Human Rights” Please support this Declaration!

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                           Fukushima Declaration of Human Rights

                        http://home.v05.itscom.net/ans-law/nomuralaw/ren_quan_xuan_yan.html 

                       We are currently living in a state of great anxiety and insecurity.

                       "Utsukushima, Fukushima," they used to say, playing on the word for "beautiful" (utsukushii) in Japanese.

                      We never imagined that one day we would see the name of our prefecture written in katakana, an ominous reminder of the fact that "Fukushima" now means much more than just a geographical location.     We never imagined that we would have to worry about the problem of radioactive contamination.

                      In the immediate aftermath of the nuclear plant accident, all of us - young and old, male and female - were exposed to radiation. Since then the amount has decreased, but we are still subject to external and internal radiation exposure. The ionizing effect of the invisible radiation that is emitted from the nuclear plant causes damage to the cells of our bodies, day and night. We are forced to make difficult decisions, such as whether to let our children play outside or not. We cannot even breathe deeply without thinking about radiation. This situation is a source of great mental stress.

                      Although many people are going about their lives in an environment in which they face health risks from radiation, this does not mean that they are indifferent to these risks. They have purchased pocket geiger counters to check radiation levels, and worry every day about how best to avoid external and internal exposure to radiation. The issue of how to protect children, who are more sensitive to radiation exposure, is a particularly troubling issue. There are a dearth of indoor facilities in which children can play freely while avoiding external exposure, and an insufficient number of devices for measuring internal exposure to radiation. 

                      There are also many people who evacuated from the places they knew and loved. Whether the evacuation was forced or voluntary, they are now living detached from the lives they used to lead. As well as an economic burden, living apart from their families and local communities has also caused psychological pain.

                      Both those who have remained in Fukushima and those who have left Fukushima once lived lives of hope and positive expectations for the future. All share a feeling of attachment to their hometowns. Nevertheless, the sad fact is that there is a growing emotional divide between those who remain in Fukushima and those who have left or are leaving Fukushima.

                      We have lost so many things as a result of the nuclear plant accident; we do not want to lose anything more.

                      - We have the right to the pursuit of happiness under the Japanese constitution;

                      - We have the right to determine whether we evacuate or not;

                      - We have the right to know, which means we have the right to obtain as much information as we feel is necessary about the problem of radiation damage;

                      - We have the right to demand a free and equal society free from discrimination;

                      - We have the right to a healthy body, to feel love for nature in Fukushima, and to enjoy our lives;

                      - We have the right to demand full reparation for damage to our property and assets caused by radiation contamination;

                      - We have the right to demand that our beloved Fukushima be returned to its pre-accident state:

                      We want to drink the water without worrying. Please bring back the Fukushima we used to know, where we were able to eat rice, vegetables, fruit, fish and meat with peace of mind.

                      Please bring back the Fukushima we used to know, where we enjoyed good relationships with our families and our neighbors, and the smiles on the faces of our children;

                      - If it is impossible to restore Fukushima to its pre-accident state, we have the right to demand reparations for what we have lost.

                      We hereby declare that we are standing up to reclaim our rights, to bring real smiles back to the faces of people in Fukushima.

                                                     May 15, 2012

                      Fukushima City:

                      Kazuhide Fukada, Tomoo/Setsuko Onuki, Kanae Kondo, Koichi/Junko Koike, Hazuki Ishida, Yukie Tachikawa, Yasuhiro Abe, Ayumi Saito, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Kazuko Ishikawa, Yayoi Murakoshi, Hiroko Sato, Mineko Furiya, Chie Omine, Fumiko Hirai, Masako Kikuchi, Sachio Baba, Hiroko Watanabe, Noriko Goto, Yuko Niji, Nobuyuki/Yuko Tezuka, Tomiko Ogawa, Makiko Sato, Yoko Koseki, Fumiko Takawa, Chie Hattori, Mieko Muroi, Yuzo/Keiko Sato, Ei Tanaka, Kazuko Takahashi, Masahiko Sato

                      Nihonmatsu City: Ryo/Sachiko Noji, Tomoe Edaguchi

                      Koriyama City: Kou Shinoda

                      Date City: Nobuko Haga, Kazune Saito

                      Soma City: Aya Mariko

                      Sukagawa City:

                      Saitama Prefecture: Ayumu Kuroda

                      Chiba Prefecture: Masamune Shimo

                      Tokyo Prefecture: Keiko Ogawa, Tomoko Koide, Mitsuko Kurashina, Jun Hori, Masumi Iino, Yuji Sunaga

                      Shiga Prefecture: Hideko Kataoka

                      Kyoto Prefecture: Ryo Yoshida, Kosho Nezu, Kazue Kitajima

                      Osaka Prefecture: Hidemune/Hiroko Mitamura, Yoko Kubota

                      Hyogo Prefecture: Teruko Sakaguchi

                      Wakayama Prefecture: Masami Nishizawa, Tatsuya Usui

                      Kagawa Prefecture: Maki Matsuura

                      Germany: Miyuki Tsuji, Hisayo Nagashima

                      [Translator's note: This is the translation of the original Japanese version as of 15 May 2012. Names in Roman may not be correct, as the original signatures are given in Chinese characters without reading.]

                      Translated by Kyo Kageura, Professor of Tokyo University

                                               ***
                      Note: As of Nov.25, more names are increased.  New names will be appeared soon in the website.

                      miwakokurosen * Human rights * 15:00 * comments(0) * trackbacks(0) * - -
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